PressureStim seeks to develop a novel method for selective vagus nerve stimulation to reduce high blood pressure (hypertension) without triggering bradycardia or bradypnea.
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  1. Zhang, Y J; Wu, S L; Li, H Y; Zhao, Q H; Ning, C H; Zhang, R Y; Yu, J X; Li, W; Chen, S H; Gao, J S
    Objective: To investigate the impact of blood pressure and age on arterial stiffness in general population. Methods: Participants who took part in 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan health examination were included. Data of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) examination were analyzed. According to the WHO criteria of age, participants were divided into 3 age groups: 18-44 years group ( n= 11 608), 45-59 years group ( n= 12 757), above 60 years group ( n= 5 002). Participants were further divided into hypertension group and non-hypertension group according to the diagnostic criteria for hypertension (2010 Chinese guidelines for the managemengt of hypertension). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) with baPWV in the total participants and then stratified by age groups. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence of blood pressure on arterial stiffness (baPWV≥1 400 cm/s) of various groups. Results: (1)The baseline characteristics of all participants: 35 350 participants completed 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan examinations and took part in baPWV examination. 2 237 participants without blood pressure measurement values were excluded, 1 569 participants with history of peripheral artery disease were excluded, we also excluded 1 016 participants with history of cardiac-cerebral vascular disease. Data from 29 367 participants were analyzed. The age was (48.0±12.4) years old, 21 305 were males (72.5%). (2) Distribution of baPWV in various age groups: baPWV increased with aging. In non-hypertension population, baPWV in 18-44 years group, 45-59 years group, above 60 years group were as follows: 1 299.3, 1 428.7 and 1 704.6 cm/s, respectively. For hypertension participants, the respective values of baPWV were: 1 498.4, 1 640.7 and 1 921.4 cm/s. BaPWV was significantly higher in hypertension group than non-hypertension group of respective age groups ( P< 0.05). 

    [Comparison of arterial stiffness in non-hypertensive and … – NCBI

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    by YJ Zhang – ‎2018 – ‎Cited by 1 – ‎Related articles

    Jan 24, 2018 – [Comparison of arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive and hypertensive populationof various age groups]. [Article in Chinese; Abstract available …


    Relative Contributions of Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension to …
    by TJ Niiranen – ‎2016 – ‎Cited by 30 – ‎Related articles

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    Elastin in large artery stiffness and hypertension – NCBI – NIH

    by JE Wagenseil – ‎2012 – ‎Cited by 213 – ‎Related articles

    Increased arterial stiffness is an important, independent predictor of cardiovascular … Tropoelastinis the soluble, monomeric form of elastin secreted by cells.

    1. Wagenseil, Jessica E.; Mecham, Robert P.
      Large artery stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is correlated with high blood pressure and may be a causative factor in essential hypertension. The extracellular matrix components, specifically the mix of elastin and collagen in the vessel wall, determine the passive mechanical properties of the large arteries. Elastin is organized into elastic fibers in the wall during arterial development in a complex process that requires spatial and temporal coordination of numerous proteins. The elastic fibers last the lifetime of the organism, but are subject to proteolytic degradation and chemical alterations that change their mechanical properties. This review discusses how alterations in the amount, assembly, organization or chemical properties of the elastic fibers affect arterial stiffness and blood pressure. Strategies for encouraging or reversing alterations to the elastic fibers are addressed. Methods for determining the efficacy of these strategies, by measuring elastin amounts and arterial stiffness, are summarized. Therapies that have a direct effect on arterial stiffness through alterations to the elastic fibers in the wall may be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. PMID:22290157

    Measurement of the local aortic stiffness by a non-invasive … – NCBI
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    Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation Acutely Improves Blood …
    by JL Sabino-Carvalho – ‎2017

    Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation Acutely Improves Blood Pressure Control … In active tVNS, electrodes were placed on the tragus of the ear and electrical …